Filed under: Web and Application Security
from our partners at Net-Square
Criminals were successful in bypassing an Android-based, two-factor authentication system during their spear phishing and malware attacks. The malicious campaign, known as Operation Emmental was discovered by a security software company earlier this year.
The criminal gang which managed Operation Emmental used phishing attacks to gather bank customer’s personal information and other sensitive data, including:
- Bank account number
- Other authentication information
They used this information to bypass bank authentication systems used by 34 different banks across four countries.
These attacks were first discovered about five months ago and have been actively targeting customers of financial services firms from Switzerland, Austria, Sweden and Japan. All of the targeted banks use a session-based token, sent via SMS, to act as a second factor for authenticating users before they’re allowed to log into their online bank account.
How Operation Emmental Was Executed
It all starts with a fake email that looks like it was sent by a legitimate and well-known entity. Then the cyber criminals serve malware attached to the email as an apparently harmless Control Panel (.cpl) file.
If users execute the malware, which may be disguised as a Windows update tool, the malware changes their system’s settings to point to an attacker-controlled Domain Name System. This allows attackers to secretly observe and control all HTTP traffic. Next, a new root Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) certificate is installed, which looks legitimate and prevents web browsers from warning victims of a bad/insecure cert as it normally would.
The malware deletes itself leaving behind only the altered configuration settings. This makes the attack difficult to spot: when users with infected computers eventually try to access the bank’s website, they are instead pointed to a malicious site that looks and works just like the real bank website.
The next phase of the attack occurs when users log into the fake banking site. Once logged in, users are instructed to download and install an Android app that generates one-time tokens for logging into their bank. In reality, it will intercept SMS messages from the bank and forward them to a command-and-control server or to another mobile phone number.
This means that the cybercriminal not only gets the victims’ online banking credentials through the phishing website, but also the session tokens needed to bank online as well. The criminals end up with full control of the victims’ bank accounts. By stealing the credentials and compromising the authenticated session of the user, it would appear normal to the Bank, as if a user is merely conducting a typical financial transaction. In reality, the user is potentially having their bank account drained without any of the typical banking warning flags going up.
What can you do to protect yourself and your users?
One recommendation comes from the researcher who first discovered this attack. Improve the verification schemes for users and user transactions. If the verification process went beyond multi-factor authentication or session-based tokens via SMS, it could prevent this particular type of campaign.
In addition, banks should warn their customers never to click on links in emails, but instead cut and paste links in the browser bars.
In the remediation report, additional recommendations have stated that banks should implement open source Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting & Conformance (DMARC) technology. This helps in verifying the email origin and domain names, eventually blocking many types of phishing attacks against customers. DMARC is fundamentally important since it ascertains whether an email of a domain name is spoofed or impersonated.
The lessons learned from Operation Emmental are ones that stretch beyond banking. These concepts can be applied to any type of app with a secure login. If you have any questions about testing or securing your app, please feel free to reach out to us!No Comments »